Posts Tagged ‘ethics’

Faith and Works


Today, reply is on giving while in the workplace. Giving without integrity is dead. Correctly practiced, giving for Christian believers always will be marked by such elements as balance, accountability, cheerfulness, dutifulness, gratitude, humility, impartiality, lovingkindness, peace of mind, respect, and restraint. One of the fighters in the “Yahoo! Answers” public forum on Religion and Spirituality who uses the ID “Anonymous” (no profile is shared) posted the following:


Do you think it was wrong for my manager not to give the homeless man a meal?

A while ago a homeless guy stopped by the fast food place I worked at and asked for a meal. My manager said no and gave him the excuse that there are cameras watching our every move and he could get in trouble for giving away a meal.

All of the employees were talking about how he should’ve given the man some food because people still get away with doing things even though the cameras are watching. My manager told me that lately the management team has been getting in trouble for giving away too many free meals and he was afraid if getting in trouble.

I for one kind of agree with him. As an employee I don’t even get a free meal and I bend over backwards for this establishment. I don’t see why some random person off the street should get free food for doing nothing. He can take advantage of the local soup kitchen.


THE GOLDEN ARROW: Yea, a man may say, Thou hast faith, and I have works: shew me thy faith without thy works, and I will shew thee my faith by my works. Thou believest that there is one God; thou doest well: the devils also believe, and tremble. (James 2: 18-19, King James Version, KJV)


THE DOUBLE DAGGER: The Use of Money? (01/07/2019); Commitment To The Brand? (06/07/2018); Giving, A Divine Discipline? (10/09/2017); The Answer From GOD (05/19/2017); It Comes With the Job? (01/11/2015); Religious Bosses? (07/08/2014); On Marketing Church, and Speaking by Occasion (09/26/2013); A Lid on Love? (09/27/2013)


Anonymous”, there are correct and wrong places, times and ways of displaying ones faith, applying truth from the Bible, and of giving to the poor. Managers in the hospitality industry and those they supervise must discharge a broad range of duties regarding the inventory, the reputation of their firm, and the materials used to present their goods to the public for income. Without a full payment for the goods, a report of pilfering (petty theft by an employee; violation of the contract and job description) should be filed, rather than a report of charitable giving. Those who want to use the organization they work for to provide gifts and support to others should use the opportunities, policies and programs of their firm intended to express goodwill and support to the community-at-large. Where the manager, or a worker wanted to share with an individual homeless person who came into their store, they would have had to deposit payment from their own wallet into the corporate cash register, or surrender the meal(s) they were to receive as an employee (e.g., breakfast/dinner/lunch).

For most of us, the workplace is not a setting for the full expression of our spiritual beliefs; there is an unwritten accord that preaching, proselytizing, or religious ceremonies, practices and rites are not to be carried out in the workplace. Developing Christian believers are in a relationship with divinity where all they possess, all they share, and much of what they do is directed primarily to GOD for the fulfillment of sacred commitment, eternal purpose, and expressing the sovereign will of GOD. In a similar way, believers are encouraged to acknowledge their employers as covenant partners with whom they are bound through personal accountability, legal agreements, ethical process, promises, and shared financial interests. Sinners who become “born again” are cautioned to avoid taking on the task of judging others, particularly with regard to giving, service, and worship. In addition to the risk of “jumping to conclusions,” those who judge encounter many subtleties (i.e., barely visible differences; hidden shifts in meaning, quality and value) that must be assigned weight, and correctly examined for their influence and outcome.

Various unexpected events (e.g., transportation accidents, fires, flooding, mudslides, snow) may result in multiple deaths, and urgent demands for funding, gifts, medical supplies, and other support. Properly performed, giving to the church allows sharing through multiple carefully managed programs and mechanisms for distributing resources. Such giving should be regular and reliable; and, in the same way one disciplines, plans and uses restraint for their spending, giving also is best accomplished using a budget, formal order, and restraint. Here are further points believers reflect on that use language from the Bible:

1. Proverbs 16: 25, King James Version (KJV): 25 There is a way that seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death.

2. Proverbs 20: 11, KJV: 11 Even a child is known by his doings, whether his work be pure, and whether it be right.

3. Proverbs 19: 17, KJV: 19 He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto the LORD; and that which he hath given will he pay him again.

4. Proverbs 14: 31, KJV: 31 He that oppresseth the poor reproacheth his Maker: but he that honoureth him hath mercy on the poor.

There is far more that should be said, correctly examined, and spiritually apprehended. (For example, 5. Proverbs 22: 1-2, KJV: 22 A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and loving favour rather than silver and gold. 2 The rich and poor meet together: the LORD is the maker of them all.) Even so, I trust this fragment will be useful. Be it unto you according to your faith.

Signature Mark


Washington, DC


The image advocates religious neutrality in the workplace


Today, reply is on ethics and the obligations of employees to their employer regarding the expression and practice of their spiritual beliefs both in and outside of the workplace.  Becoming selected and hired by a going enterprise is more than a matter of selling oneself and being paid to labor; “getting a job” means entering a relationship to obtain benefits and resources for ones life.  In modern work settings—agricultural, financial, government, industrial, medical, theatrical—every employee is required to exercise restraint, and to help maintain a positive work atmosphere free of conflicts based on age, arbitrary differences, ethnic and national origin, personal traits (e.g., hair color, height, weight), religious beliefs, and their concerns for developing their own career or business.  One of the fighters in the “Yahoo Answers” forum who uses the ID “Anonymous” (no profile data shown) posted the following in the Religion and Spirituality section:


Did you know my company made a rule outlawing religious artifacts and praying at our work?
They states we can pray after work or on a lunch break in private.The company has no right to tell my conservative brothers and sisters when and where to pray!!! First amendment!


THE GOLDEN ARROW:  Even a child is known by his doings, whether his work be pure, and whether it be right.  (Proverbs 20:  11, King James Version, KJV)


THE DOUBLE DAGGER:  The Relationship As Servant (06/03/2018); Blessed In Our Deeds (05/29/2018); Duties of a Christian? (03/13/2018); Called To Be Servants? (11/25/2015); It Comes With the Job? (01/11/2015); Religious Bosses? (07/08/2014); On Religious Items (08/29/2012); On Cults (08/30/2012)


“Anonymous”, here are some points on belief, conscience, personal integrity, and grace that may be helpful: 

Currently, when a worker accepts a position with a firm, they are expected to acknowledge that they are also a representative of the company Brand.  In the same way you are recognized and respected as a legitimate agent and representative who embodies the firm, and provides its “human face” to the public during work hours and in the workplace, a worker’s behavior and conduct before the public in non-work settings also will influence how the firm is evaluated, respected, and supported.  The relationship between employee and employer continues when you are in the public arena on the basis of ethics, principles, purposes, and standards, and is not simply a matter of consumer products and services.  Many young workers are not aware of this, and feel strongly that, once they complete their shift at work, they can dismiss, ignore, and openly oppose all the demands and rules of their employer, and their workplace. 

The covenant (i.e., the formal, legal agreement; the verbal or written contract) between an employee and an employer should be understood as projecting beyond the specifics of their job description, their to-do list, or a flow chart displaying their daily duties.  A workplace is a social setting having all the same needs for fiscal soundness, health care, hygiene, nourishment, law enforcement, and crisis management as those of a small town.  A workplace can include those from diverse backgrounds, marital status, multiple knowledge and skill sets as well as those having different levels of job experience, personal ambition, commitment to the company mission statement, and devotion to  the discipline/field, to say nothing of differences among its workers for their levels of emotional, psychological, and spiritual maturity.

Both employers and their workers also are expected to acknowledge a set of unspoken assumptions and conditions (we say, adopt a common-sense understanding; accept as binding points that are logically consistent and interdependent with those of their formal agreement).  Thus, knowing there is a company issued uniform, unless it is an aspect of his job, a new employee will not appear on his first day of work wearing logos of the competitor, and expect to continue in the workplace without challenge, comments that may be negative, and conflict.  A commitment to address and satisfy one another’s needs must come into view, and must develop over time establishing such features as continuity, flow, mutual accountability, shared identity, respect, job satisfaction, and trust.  Consider again the following that uses language from the Bible:

(1.)  Romans 6:  16, King James Version (KJV):  16 Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness?

(2.)  Romans 6:  8-14, KJV:  8 Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him:  9 Knowing that Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over him.  10 For in that he died, he died unto sin once:  but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God.  11 Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord.  12 Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that ye should obey it in the lusts thereof.  13 Neither yield ye your members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin:  but yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness unto God.  14 For sin shall not have dominion over you:  for ye are not under the law, but under grace.

(3.)  2nd Corinthians 4:  17-18, KJV:  17 For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory;  18 While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen:  for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal.

There is far more that should be said, correctly examined, and spiritually apprehended.  (For example, (4.)  Romans 8:  5-9, KJV:  5 For they that are after the flesh do mind the things of the flesh; but they that are after the Spirit the things of the Spirit.  6 For to be carnally minded is death; but to be spiritually minded is life and peace.  7 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God:  for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.  8 So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God.  9 But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.)  Even so, I trust this fragment will be useful.  Be it unto you according to your faith.

Washington, DC


     Lately, I have been thinking of my brothers from Theta Xi (qX) fraternity at Trinity College (Hartford, CT) and how, correctly understood, the operations of diversity establish unity where oneness does not have to mean sameness.  Just as the very words that bring us together also can separate us; what generates our independence can both enrich and impoverish us.  I received a letter from one of the brothers who is taking leadership to organize a reunion on campus for 2017.  In hoping to share something that could give him an “update” or quick picture of my present commitment to Christ, and changes in me from my post in Washington, DC that have been made over the years, I wanted to attach a file from the music ministry of Chris Machen, Bow the Knee, from the 1994 album God Is Able.  When I thought it might be too dramatic, and would raise the unwanted question, Why would a black man express himself using a white man’s music? I looked for something else that (1) would express belief, yet, (2) not deny my cultural origins.  I then attached two MP3 music files to my reply.  One was from the music ministry of Steve Amerson, I Will Follow, in the 1991 album He Is My Strength.  The other was from Wintley Phipps, No Need To Fear, in the 2007 album, No Need To Fear.

    Even though I was a member of Capitol Hill Seventh Day Adventist Church, I had never heard Pastor Phipps sing No Need To Fear until he shared it following a lunch-hour prayer meeting on the Senate side of the Capitol.  That was one of the experiences I cherish from that time in my life, along with daily being required to double check everything I would prepare as part of my work in the Library of Congress.  In developing personal standards for balance, self-discipline and spiritual maturity as well as for ethical and professional behavior, I have had to become alert to avoid conflicts of interest, misuse of employer (i.e., government) property and supplies, and conduct that would be seen as pressuring others regarding religious beliefs (i.e., proselytizing).  It was through the ministry and prayers of Pastor Phipps that I was reunited with my college sweetheart after many years of separation.  While I did think so highly of Pastor Phipps that, following worship one Sabbath, I introduced to him the woman I wanted to have as my life companion (we arrived late, and had to sit upstairs in the balcony, able to hear his preaching and singing, yet, unable to see him or be seen by him because he was directly beneath us); even so, I never sat down with either of them to share my personal testimony of having seen Jesus Christ.  (The first time I was able to share that witness after my own mother’s death was with the mother of another Trinity College classmate.)

    The idea of using music and recordings to express your own feelings, or to say what you otherwise could not say with words, was shared with me very early as I was growing-up.  My older sisters (who were also my first dance instructors) revealed that girls often rely upon the words in songs to crystallize their feelings and emotions.  As a radio announcer and broadcast engineer, I was able to share and demonstrate this to the Theta Xi brothers as part of our campus life through WRTC-FM, the Trinity College (Hartford, CT) radio station.  While I did understand then that hymns, psalms and sacred music could be used to express spiritual ideas, I would have to learn that, like preaching and the spoken word, believers are to use music and dance to prophecy (i.e., comfort, edify, exhort), and impart spirit substance from the makeup of divinity.

    When I wrote other of the brothers, I was not sure I should send more music.  I did not want to appear to be proselytizing, or sending out spam.  I thought, the focus should be upon reunion in a way that problems or wounds from the past not be obstacles to the future.  I chose to send only a brief note to one brother in Massachusetts; to a second from Florida, I chose to attach the qX award-winning contemporary blues classic Moonlight Over The Mississippi from the 2012 album ROYAL SOUTHERN BROTHERHOOD (2) by the Royal Southern Brotherhood (see it on YouTube performed for American troops stationed in Bonn, Germany @  When I wrote the brother who had been my roommate on campus, and with whom I had traveled to provide the play-by-play for broadcasts of Trinity football, I first chose to send an acappella selection that reminded me of the folk music popular during our campus years.  I shared from Glad, Be Ye Glad, in the 1998 album, Collector’s Series, Vol. 2.  Later, I shared “Moonlight” also. 

    “Moonlight” impressed me as having captured the Spirit of our good times together.  When I began at Trinity, the total of African and American blacks within a student population of some 1,200 was still fewer than 10.  My first exposure to New England college fraternity life, and the turning point that made me feel at home, would be a weekend when the Isley Brothers (You Make Me Want To Shout) performed at our campus on an outdoor stage.  Before graduation, Baby Huey from Motown, the Temptations, and B. B. King would also appear.  The men of Theta Xi were dedicated students, and all worked hard to maintain a high academic standard.  The bar for grades was set at B or better for every member of house.  We needed the rest and refreshing of party weekends and other activities away from books; and we were learning and growing at a time when self-discovery and self-expression also meant exploring jazz and rock’ n’ roll.  The Little Rascals introduced a song at our house, Gloria, that took us to a soaring height of unity when we all were dancing and began to sing with the band.  Yet, for me, only the Brotherhood has accomplished what the Rolling Stones hungered for, and worked to achieve with all their might:  being able to play the blues as Masters of the form, despite their being “white boys.”  At qX we were able to release one another, then, from the burdens of racial conflict, distrust, prejudice, and snobbery.  Together we were able to discover and practice the many shared aspects of “Soul” that GOD had placed among us.

    I was not alone seeking to explore what we then called “The Black Experience.”  African History and Black Studies were offered on campus; and an action group was formed to maintain dialogue on issues of race in America.  Yet, the needed focus and work to complete a doctoral thesis while still in undergraduate school—creating curriculum based on learning theory, and designing a school system that would address a range of specific needs and problems within African American communities—distanced me from the men of Theta Xi in many ways.  Later, my experience of Christ while in graduate school at the University of Chicago demanded that I make a full commitment to divinity that continues to set me apart from others.  Even so, when the brothers of Theta Xi come together in reunion, I hope to be there.  I expect we will gather as survivors, those who dreamed the dream; and by what we have endured, those who grasp forgiveness, gratitude, and those without a willingness to quit.  Should it ever happen, it can only be a gathering of those having an ageless spirit in brotherhood, and who still can celebrate with genuine affection, empathy, joy, and mutual respect.

Washington, DC

New Disclaimer

Accountability, duty, ethics, and personal authority are themes for our blog presentation this Labor Day, 2015.  As a former Federal employee in my position for many years through the Library of Congress, I was very surprised when the entire staff was required to attend sessions instructing us with regard to the importance of ethics when performing our duties for Congress and the Nation.  To me, OJT (on the job training) orientations on honor, integrity, respect and trust seemed part of what should have been provided before our first full day of employment had finished.  We were being granted an opportunity to serve that should be held as a full-time commitment, not merely an eight-hour day or “9 to 5 grind.”  To use government computers, copy machines, manpower, paper, time in the workplace, and other resources for personal goals was to be understood as pilfering and theft.  Every government  employee’s attitudes, behavior, and conduct continue to be thought of as representative of their constituents and the employer, even, long after the workday is over.  The employer should be free to expect those hired to be in a covenant agreement for mutual benefit; yet, cooperation, permission, and restrictions will be in place for planned operations to be completed without duplication and waste.  Without direct confirmation of ones supervisor, personnel were to informally adopt or assume no added advantages, benefits, perks or privileges beyond those to fulfill their job description and work agreement.  One of the fighters at “Yahoo! Answers” who uses the ID “Anonymous” (no profile information shared) posted the following:


Why can’t I as an atheist do the same thing as Kim Davis?

“I’m sorry, I can’t authorize your christian marriage because they violate my atheist beliefs.” This is why Kim will not see the light of day for a while.


THE GOLDEN ARROW:  Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God:  the powers that be are ordained of God.  Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God:  and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation.  For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same:  For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain:  for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.  Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake.  For for this cause pay ye tribute also:  for they are God’s ministers, attending continually upon this very thing.  Render therefore to all their dues:  tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honour to whom honour.  Owe no man any thing, but to love one another:  for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the law.  For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.  Love worketh no ill to his neighbour:  therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.  And that, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep:  for now is our salvation nearer than when we believed.  The night is far spent, the day is at hand:  let us therefore cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armour of light.  (Romans 13:  1-12, KJV)


THE DOUBLE DAGGER:  A Price for Religious Liberty? (06/30/2015); Different Strokes, For Different Folks? (06/22/2015); Those Having the True Secrets? (04/14/2015); It Comes With the Job? (01/11/2015); Law in Christian Belief? (09/03/2013); A Need to Know? (09/04/2013)


“Anonymous”, here are a few thoughts I would like to share on the issues of civil disobedience, marriage, and the misuse of sacred knowledge in America, today.  The right to religious liberty with freedom to maintain ones conscience and practice ones own beliefs is not also the right to religious authority over those who disbelieve.  Liberty allows one to participate in a community of like-minded believers wherein there may be a division of labor and hierarchy to accomplish shared goals.  Such a broad liberty may be granted to all, however, the peculiar privileges of membership for those within a sanctified body (i.e., a collective set apart for service to divinity) will be restricted exclusively to those who are contributing participants of their own assembly, congregation, or community of faith.  Where we are granted secular authority in settings to provide civil and human services, it is both presumptuous and unethical to assume and exercise judicial or police authority.

Where an elected official or government worker feels their job description, and the demands of their position are in conflict with the mandates and policies of the agencies wherein they serve, resignation and separation without prejudice are the most appropriate actions to spare those who lack job satisfaction, and to resolve the apparent conflicts.  For an employee to insist upon refusing to carry out lawful orders, their insubordination may be seen as an attack upon the agency as well as acts that are criminal, disloyal, and seditious.

For those claiming to be Christian believers, it is to be recognized as pride and spiritual confusion when any person (particularly clergy) assumes they are above divine law; that they themselves are the primary advocate, and source of life and power for sacred law; and that their own righteousness permits them to wear a mantel of divine judgment.  There is ungodly arrogance in seeking to punish another individual, an ethnic group, a family, or a nation on the basis of finite and imperfect law (i.e., public opinion) that entails multiple levels of subtlety (i.e., barely visible differences; hidden shifts in meaning and value).

Thus, for example, those daring to call themselves righteous as terrorists are not true partakers of the fullness of GOD.  While wrath against sin come does correctly come into view, the eternal purposes of judgment are not to be dismissed, ignored or overlooked.  Foremost among the exalted aspects of divine intent are correction; divine order; continuing righteousness; gratitude; humility; sealing the beloved with the mark of GOD; completing the full revelation of being, existence and life that is divine priority; and preparing mankind for the harvesting of the earth, the end of mortality, and the permanent transformation of humanity at the coming of Jesus Christ. 

There are many other points that should be carefully considered, correctly understood, and made a permanent aspect of ones new life in Christ.  (For example:  This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come.  For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy,  Without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good,  Traitors, heady, highminded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God;  Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof:  from such turn away (2nd Timothy 3:  1-5, King James Version, KJV).  Even so, I trust this fragment will be useful.  Be it unto you according to your faith.


Washington, DC

Commitments for Christians as secular workers, employment contracts, ethics, personal freedom, and service to divinity are topics, today.  A fighter at “Yahoo! Answers” using the ID “SupaStar” (Level 3 with 1,435 points, a member since August 07, 2014) posted the following:


Is it typical of Christian employers to not only tell you what you can do while at work…?

…but, even what to THINK outside of work, at the threat of losing your job?


THE GOLDEN ARROW:  Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord.  And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him.  (Colossians 3:  16-17, KJV)


THE DOUBLE DAGGER:  In Not From The World? (12/26/2014); Religious Bosses? (07/08/2014); All Lying Forbidden? (03/04/2014); Wrong Not to Forgive? (03/05/2014); Freewill is Finite (06/30/2013); GOD Intervenes? (07/01/2013)


“SupaStar”, here are a few points all Christian believers must be aware of:

(1.)  When a person accepts any employment they enter into a legal contract that includes assumed and unspoken terms (e.g., to assist and encourage performance; cooperate with fellow employees, show courtesy and respect to potential clients and customers) as well as explicit terms (e.g., dress, hours, job description, salary).  In effect, the employee agrees to accept discipline, go, return, learn, sit, speak, be silent, stand, wear—whatever—in return for authority, pay, privilege, promotion, and reward.

(2.)  Certain decisions are supposed to be in place before you go looking for a job.  Behavioral requirements and commitments within the workplace are generally understood as a matter of ethics (moral standards and their effect upon conduct).  Conflicts of interest are discouraged.  Employees are agents, affiliates and representatives of their employer; and, are being paid to guard and promote the interests of their employer at all times.  Just as employees have duty and responsibility to maintain a peculiar atmosphere within the workplace that encourages completion of necessary tasks, and quality of a company’s product, employee home life and after-work conduct influences perceptions of their employer (we say, the reputation and brand name).

(3.)  Lacking knowledge of costs, losses and the impact upon their employer’s earnings; lacking professional maturity and perspective; or lacking the sense of responsibility for the livelihood of their fellow employees, many feel it is their personal freedom to use employer tools (e.g., computers, copy machines, printers) for entertainment and added income.  This violates the “spirit” of their contract to profit their firm; and, in effect, is pilfering, stealing, thievery.

(4.)  Among faith-based, government, and private employers, workers are expected to change in support of their employer.  They are to accept and express a “corporate identity” whereby they can be known and immediately recognized as agents of their employer.  Saying this another way, they are to add value, develop, improve, produce and progress.

There is far more to be said, correctly understood, and spiritually apprehended.  (For example, (5.)  During the interview stages, and before they are hired, believers are expected to investigate prospective employers, carefully examine income and other benefits along with the fit between themselves and the firm they are negotiating with.  The believer must also consider how their commitment to the position will effect their lifestyle as well as their opportunities for further personal and spiritual growth.  Once a person has accepted a position, the Christian principles for commitment within the workplace are simple:  Do all as though you are working for GOD.  It is the duty of every believer to comfort, edify, and exhort their fellow believers (you might say, benefit, caution, encourage, remind, and warn.)  Even so, I trust this fragment will be useful.  Be it unto you according to your faith.

Washington, DC